Jaime Gomez, who shared the lead entering the final round with Taylor, posted a 2-under 68 to finish alone in second place at 12-under-par 268.
Derek Gillespie and Wes Heffernan each posted 66s to share third place at minus-11. Peter Tomasulo and Will Yanagisawa were one stroke further back at 10-under-par 270.
Taylor opened with five straight pars at Uplands Golf Club. He then went birdie-eagle-birdie to jump to minus-14.
The 26-year-old, whose best previous finish on tour was a second place finish at the 2004 Montreal Open, birdied the par-4 10th for the fourth straight round.
The Canadian parred his next four holes and then birdied the 15th to get to 16-under. He closed with back-to-back birdies for the six-shot win.
'It really hasn't sunk in yet,' said Taylor. 'I'm in a daze and probably won't realize just how big this is until I get home.'
Amateur Craig Doell closed with a 2-under 68 to finish at 9-under-par 271. This is the second straight year an amateur finished in the top 10. Last year, James Lepp ended three shots behind winner David Hearn to end alone in second place.
Gordy Scutt took eighth place at 8-under-par 272 after a final-round 66. Luke Hickmott, Alex Rocha and Brian Unk were one stroke further back at minus-7.