The 28-year-old Swede made successive birdies three times, dropping only one shot to total 8-under 132. Colin Montgomerie, who had seven birdies for a 64, and Niclas Fasth (68) were tied for second.
Edberg, who has been to the Tour qualifying school nine times and only regained his playing card last year, said the putts at the second and eighth holes were lucky.
'But my game is there. I'm hitting the shots I want to hit,' said Edberg, who missed five cuts in his last eight tournaments but finished in the top 20 in the other three, including last week's French Open.
South Africa David Frost (66) and Simon Khan (67) shared fourth place, two shots back from Edberg. First-round leader Maarten Lafeber (72) dropped into a share of 10th place.
Montgomerie had four birdies on the front nine and three on the back. His longest birdie putt was from 15 feet.