The Lady Dogs combined for a 2-over-par 290 to erase an overnight four-shot deficit. Duke, who entered the tournament ranked first in the Golfweek/Sagarin College Rankings, faltered on Friday, shooting a 9-over-par 297.
The national championship is the first in the schools history, but the second consecutive for Georgias coach.
Todd McCorkle steered the University of Arizona to the national crown a year ago, and then joined the Lady Dog staff when long-time coach Beans Kelly retired.
Georgia was buoyed in the final round by the steady play of their four leading scorers - Reilley Rankin, (72), Laura Henderson (73), Angela Jerman (73) and Summer Sirmons (72).
Sirmons and Rankin both missed all of last season due to back injuries.
On the other hand, only one of Dukes players ' all of who are ranked inside the top 40 in the nation individually - managed to break 75 on Friday.
That player was Candy Hannemann. The junior shot 69 to finish the tournament at 3-under-par, tied with Arizona freshman Lorena Ochoa, who also shot 69 in the final round.
The two players, who just happened to be ranked first and second in the nation, went to a playoff to determine the individual champion. Hannemann, No. 2 in the rankings, prevailed with a par on the first extra hole.
Georgias triumph was their second team victory of the season. Coincidentally, they also overcame a four-shot final-round deficit to capture the SEC Championship.
The University will go for a sweep next week as the top-ranked mens team will vie for the national championship at Duke University, May 30 ' June 2.