The win was Schroeders first on tour in his 119th career start.
Schroeder and Doyle, the 1999 winner of this event, each carded final-round 4-under-par 68s to finish regulation at 9-under. Schroeder hit the mark with a birdie on the par-5 finishing hole. He then took home the title when Doyle bogeyed the second extra hole.
Overnight leader Larry Ziegler finished in a tie for 14th following a 6-over-par 78.
Schroeder is the son of former tennis star Ted Schroeder, who won the 1941 U.S. Open and 1949 Wimbledon Championship. He captured his only PGA Tour title at the 1973 U.S. Professional Match Play Championship.
Schroeder collected $180,000 for his maiden victory.
Full-field scores from the NFL Golf Classic