Doyle shot 5-under-par 67 to tie Tewell (66) at 15-under-par 273. The win is Doyles sixth overall title and his second major championship (1999 Senior PGA Championship).
Doyle talks to Tom Nettles after his major win
'This is great,' said Doyle, a former college hockey player. 'I just hung in there, made some putts and it happened.
'You can't fathom where I've come from. It still blows my mind that this is my office, here at a golf course. You don't lose touch with that and don't forget that you're one of the luckiest guys in the world. Am I one up on everybody or what?'
Ed Dougherty led by one shot entering the final round at the TPC of Michigan. However, Dougherty shot 1-over-par 73 to tie Bruce Fleisher for fourth place at 10-under.
Hale Irwin shot 66 to finish in third place at 12-under. This is the first time Irwin has failed to win a major in a full season on the Senior PGA Tour.
Playing in the final threesome with Dougherty, Tewell and Doyle battled for the seasons final major.
Tewell, who won this years Tradition, took a one-shot lead at 14-under by birdieing the par-4 16th. He then stuck his third shot on the par-5 17th inside of six feet and recorded his second straight birdie.
Doyle stayed alive by matching Tewells birdie at the penultimate hole.
On the 72nd hole, Tewell nearly clinched victory when his long birdie putt skimmed the edge. He would eventually tap in for par.
Doyle caught a bit of bad luck on the par-4 18th, as his tee shot landed in a divot in the fairway. Doyle was able to get his approach shot onto the green, though he did so 50 feet from the cup.
Needing to make the putt to force sudden death, Doyle did just that.
The two men headed back to the 18th tee, where Doyle teed off first and found the fairway ' sans divot.
Tewell then hooked his tee shot into the wetlands. He was forced to pitch out and took two more shots to finally reach the putting surface. Tewell would one-putt for bogey.
Taking the conservative route, Doyle placed his approach shot in nearly the same spot as he did 20 minutes prior. This time, he lagged his birdie effort 1 feet past the hole and then tapped in for par and the win.
'It's huge,' said the 52-year-old former amateur star. 'No one can take that from me. No one.
'I have my little niche here and I realize that. People are always going to see me as an underdog. But I like playing in the shadows.'
Full-field scores from the Ford Senior Players Championship