Dougherty was joined in the lead by Peter Hanson and Pedro Linhart.
Robert-Jan Derksen is one of seven players one shot off the lead. He shares fourth place with Peter Baker, Peter Fowler, Gary Orr, Paul Broadhurst, Martin Erlandsson and Terry Pilkadaris.
Dougherty started on the 10th tee at Arlandastad Golf Club. After back-to-back pars, he holed a 142-yard shot for eagle on the par-4 12th.
The Englishman moved to 3 under with a birdie on the par-4 14th. Dougherty parred the last four holes of his opening nine.
On the front nine, Dougherty parred the first eight holes before closing with a birdie on the par-5 ninth.
'It's been a long while since I've had a round with no bogeys. I had plenty of them last week, that's for sure,' joked Dougherty about last week's PGA Championship. 'I've not played a good round in what feels like forever, but I played some really great golf there. You've got to turn the corner somewhere, so hopefully this is where it starts.'
Hanson stumbled to a bogey on the 10th. He bounced back with consecutive birdies from the 15th. However, Hanson made the turn at even-par after tripping to a bogey on the 18th.
Around the turn, Hanson carded three birdies in the first five holes to get within one of the lead. He also birdied No. 9 to cap his round.
Linhart traded a bogey for a birdie from the 11th. He moved to minus-1 thanks to a birdie on the 14th. Linhart parred the next four holes.
The Spaniard wrapped birdies at one and three around a bogey on the second. Linhart got to 3 under with a birdie on the par-3 fifth.
He tripped to another bogey on the seventh, but recovered nicely with birdies on eight and nine to share the first-round lead.
D.J. Trahan, who is battling for a spot on the U.S. Ryder Cup team, carded a 3-over 73.