Langer birdied his last three holes and stands at 17-under-par 127. That broke Jay Haas' 36-hole record from last year's rain-shortened event by a single stroke.
Mark O'Meara fired an 8-under 64 on Saturday and is tied for second place with Tom Kite, who managed a 65 of his own in round 2. The pair is knotted at minus-13.
Langer struggled early with a bogey at the par-5 second hole, but rebounded with a birdie at the par-3 second. He birdied the fifth and seventh to make the turn in 34.
The German birdied the 10th hole, but only found himself two ahead as many players were going low on Saturday. At the par-5 13th, Langer drained a 17-foot birdie putt to move to 14 under par and three clear of the field.
With O'Meara making a run late, Langer felt the pressure and responded. At the par-4 16th, Langer knocked his approach to 3 feet and kicked in the short birdie putt.
One hole later, Langer hit a solid tee ball to 17 feet at the par-3 17th. He made that putt to get back to a three-shot lead since O'Meara birdied his last two.
At the par-5 closing hole at Augusta Pines Golf Club, Langer hammered a long drive leaving him with less than 200 yards to the flag stick. His second landed 50 feet from the cup, where he two-putted for birdie, the 36-hole lead and a four-shot cushion heading into Sunday.
Langer is a Hall of Famer with three PGA TOUR wins, including a pair of Masters titles, and 42 European Tour victories. He turned 50 in August and in three previous starts on the Champions Tour, never finished outside the top 13.
But he never really threatened the leader in those starts. Sunday he will have shots to play with as he hopes to come out with win No. 1 on the 50-and-over circuit.
Tom Purtzer (65), Jim Thorpe (66), Lonnie Nielsen (67), Andy Bean (67), Jeff Sluman (68) and Tom Jenkins (68) are tied for fourth place at 10-under-par 134.
Haas (66), Ben Crenshaw (65), Jerry Pate (68) and Bob Gilder (68) share 10th place at minus-9.