Just the FAQs Everything You Need to Know About Casey Martin and the Supreme Court

By Adam BarrJanuary 15, 2001, 5:00 pm
What: Oral argument in PGA Tour, Inc. v. Martin, Case No. 00-24 in the Supreme Court of the United States.
When: Wednesday, Jan. 17 at 10 a.m. EST. (Decision in spring or early summer.)
Where: Supreme Court building, One First Street NE, Washington D.C.
Who: For the PGA Tour, appellate lawyer H. Bartow Farr III, 56, a former law clerk for Chief Justice William Rehnquist, now a partner in the Washington firm of Farr & Taranto. For Casey Martin, New York City appellate specialist Roy Reardon, 71, of the firm of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett.
Members of the U.S. Supreme CourtHow: Each lawyer will have 30 minutes to address the nine Justices of the Supreme Court (Chief Justice William Rehnquist and Justices John Paul Stevens, Sandra Day O'Connor, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Steven Breyer, David Souter, and Clarence Thomas). The time limits are strictly enforced. Justices may interrupt with questions, and often do. There are no witnesses.
TV coverage: On Jan. 17, Adam Barr live from Washington at about 11:30 a.m. EST. Golf Central with Adam Barr at 7:30 p.m. EST. Viewers Forum with Adam Barr live at 9 p.m. EST. No cameras are allowed in the courtroom.
Why: In 1997, professional golfer Casey Martin, who suffers from a rare circulatory disorder that makes it impossible to walk the golf course, sued the PGA Tour for the right to use a golf cart in the PGA Tour Qualifying Tournament. He convinced a federal court in Eugene, Oregon to grant a temporary injunction requiring the Tour to comply.
In February 1998, the same court held a trial on the issue of whether the temporary injunction should become permanent. Six days of proceedings included testimony from Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Ken Venturi, former U.S. Golf Association president Judy Bell and Martin himself. A dramatic videotape of Martin's afflicted leg upset many in the courtroom. The court decided for Martin.
The PGA Tour appealed to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, the federal appeals region in which Eugene is found. That court affirmed the trial court; Martin prevailed again.
The PGA Tour, which had intimated that it would not take the case further, changed its plan in light of the decision in Olinger v. USGA, in which an Indiana golf pro sued the USGA for the right to use a cart in U.S. Open qualifying - and lost. The case was reviewed in a different circuit, and the result stood.
This emboldened the Tour to take the matter to the Supreme Court, which it did on July 5, 2000. On Sept. 26, the Court decided to take the appeal. (In most cases, it is up to the Supreme Court whether it will hear a case.) The Court's acceptance, which requires the consent of at least four Justices, means that at least that many Justices have concerns about the result in the courts below.
What it all means: The Supreme Court may well decide that the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), on which Martin relied in court, was not designed to protect competitors in sporting events.
If that happens, it's likely that the Tour will decide to withstand the public relations hit involved in taking Martin's cart away. Some have speculated that even if the Tour won, it would make a one-time exception for Martin, whom it has been careful to call a fine young man at every opportunity. But just as often, the Tour has stressed the importance of uniformity of competitive rules.
No one denies that Martin is disabled. Also, there is no dispute that Martin is an independent contractor, so he is not covered by Title I, the portion of the ADA that protects disabled employees from discrimination.
The central issue will be whether golf courses used for Tour events are what the Title III of the ADA calls 'places of public accommodation.' In such places, clients and customers seeking services can't be discriminated against on the basis of a disability. Among the places listed in the Act as public accommodations are golf courses and places of exhibition and entertainment.
The Tour will argue that Congress never intended to include the area inside the ropes in the definition of a public accommodation. Just as the audience of a theater is not invited backstage, so the spectators of a golf tournament are not generally invited inside the ropes where the tournament is played, the Tour reasons. Therefore, the ADA would not apply.
The Tour will also argue that the ADA applies only to 'clients and customers' of public accommodations, not workers or performers there.
The Tour will also argue that even if a golf tournament is a public accommodation, allowing Martin to use a cart would 'fundamentally alter' the nature of the of the Tour's primary activity, which is putting on golf tournaments at the highest level of competition. Under the ADA, owners of public accommodations need not make allowances for the disabled if doing so would fundamentally alter the nature of the primary activities done there, even though they admittedly have a public accommodation. That's Congress's way of balancing the interests of the Act with the possible hardships on facility owners.
Martin will argue through his lawyers that Congress indeed intended the inside-the-ropes area to be a public accommodation, rather than to cut out an entire class of people who could benefit from the ADA. Martin's lawyers will also say that the issue of fundamental alteration - the courts below said riding a cart would not fundamentally alter the Tour's business - was tried completely in the trial court, and that that finding should not be disturbed.
The legal issues are complex, and emotions run high on this issue throughout the world of golf. But at the Supreme Court, intellect is supposed to override emotion and passion. The academic crucible of the law will test the assertions of the lawyers - and to a great extent, determine the future of professional golf.
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Murray fixes swing flaw, recovers momentum

By Associated PressApril 20, 2018, 2:24 am

SAN ANTONIO - Grayson Murray fixed a flaw in his swing and hit the ball well enough that blustery conditions weren't an issue for him Thursday in the Valero Texas Open.

Coming off a missed cut at Hilton Head last week, Murray made seven birdies for a 5-under 67 and a one-shot lead. His only mistake was a double bogey from a greenside bunker on the par-3 seventh hole.

''Just the fact I did give myself enough opportunities today for birdie, it took a lot of pressure off,'' Murray said.

Of the five players at 68, only Chesson Hadley played in the morning side of the draw, and he called it among his best rounds of the year because of gusts. The wind died in the afternoon and scoring improved slightly on the AT&T Oaks Course at the TPC San Antonio. Keegan Bradley, Ryan Moore, Billy Horschel and Matt Atkins each posted 68. Horschel and Moore played bogey-free.

''Struck the ball really well, something that we've been working hard on,'' Horschel said. ''Could have been better, yeah. I didn't really make anything out there today. But I'm happy with it.''

Sergio Garcia, who consulted Greg Norman on the design of the course, played the Texas Open for the first time since 2010 and shot a 74. Adam Scott failed to make a birdie in his round of 75. Scott is at No. 59 in the world and needs to stay in the top 60 by May 21 to be exempt for the U.S. Open.

Harris English was in the group at 69, while two-time Texas Open champion Zach Johnson, Nick Watney and Brandt Snedeker were among those at 70. Johnson saved his round by going 5 under over his final five holes, starting with a 12-foot eagle putt on the par-5 14th hole. He birdied the last three.

Full-field scores from the Valero Texas Open

Valero Texas Open: Articles, photos and videos

Murray was coming off a pair of top 15s at Bay Hill and the Houston Open when his game got away from him last week in the RBC Heritage, and he shot 74-70 to miss the cut. He got that sorted out in the five days between teeing it up in San Antonio.

He said he was coming down too steep, which meant he would flip his hands and hit a sharp draw or pull out of it and hit it short and right.

''I was hitting each club 10 yards shorter than I normally do, and you can't play like that because your caddie is trying to give you a number and a club, and you keep hitting these bad shots or keep coming up short,'' Murray said. ''I got back to the basics with the setup and the takeaway, got my club in a better position at the top, which kind of frees my downswing. Then I can start going at it.''

Even so, Murray thought he wasted his good start - three birdies in his first six holes - when his bunker shot at No. 7 came out with no spin and rolled off the green into a deep swale. He hit his third short to about 7 feet, but missed the putt and took double bogey.

''I would have loved to limit that to a bogey because bogeys don't really kill you - doubles are the ones that now you've got to have an eagle or two birdies to come back with, and out here it's kind of tough to make birdies,'' Murray said. ''But I kept my head. My caddie keeps me very positive out there, that's why I think we could finish 4 under the last nine holes.''

Only 34 players in the 156-man field managed to break par.

Horschel missed four birdie chances inside 18 feet on the back nine. What pleased him the most was the way he struck the ball, particularly after his tie for fifth last week at the RBC Heritage. Horschel was one shot behind going into the last round and closed with a 72.

But he's all about momentum, and he can only hope this is the start of one of his runs. Horschel won the FedEx Cup in 2014 when he finished second and won the final two playoff events.

''I'm a big momentum player. I've got to get the train moving forward,'' he said. ''I've always been a guy who gets on a little roll, get that train moving and jump in that winner's circle.''

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LPGA back in L.A.: Inbee Park leads by 1

By Associated PressApril 20, 2018, 1:53 am

LOS ANGELES - Inbee Park's flirtation with retirement is in the rear-view mirror.

Backed by a large contingent of South Korean fans, Park shot a 5-under 66 for a one-shot lead Thursday in the opening round of the HUGEL-JTBC LA Open in the LPGA's return to Los Angeles after a 13-year absence.

Showers ended shortly before Park's threesome, including second-ranked Lexi Thompson, teed off at windy Wilshire Country Club just south of Hollywood.

Using a new putter, Park birdied four consecutive holes on the back nine before a bogey on the par-4 17th. She quickly recovered and rolled in birdie putts on the second and fifth holes to finish off her round.

''I never played a tournament outside Korea having this much Korean supporters out,'' Park said. ''I almost feel like I'm playing back home. It's almost like a little Korea.''

That applies to the food, too, with nearby Koreatown's restaurants beckoning.

''Too many,'' Park said.

The third-ranked Park banished the blade-style putter she used in her Founders Cup victory last month in Phoenix, a playoff loss in the ANA Inspiration and a tie for third last week in Hawaii. She went back to one that feels more comfortable and has brought her success in the past.

''Last week was just an awkward week where I missed a lot of short ones and I just wasn't really comfortable with the putter,'' Park said, ''so I just wanted to have a different look.''

The 29-year-old Hall of Famer recently said she was 50-50 about retiring before returning to the tour in early March after a six-month break. Momentum has been going her way ever since.

Marina Alex was second. Thompson was one of seven players at 68 in partly sunny and unseasonable temperatures in the low 60s.

Full-field scores from the Hugel-JTBC Open

Alex tied Park with a birdie on No. 11. The American dropped a stroke with a bogey on the par-5 13th before rallying with a birdie on No. 14 to share the lead.

Alex found trouble on the par-4 17th. Her ball crossed over a winding creek, bounced and then rolled into the water, leaving Alex looking for it. Eventually, she salvaged a bogey to drop a shot behind Park. After a bad tee shot on 18, Alex managed a par to close at 67.

''I made a lot of the putts that I shouldn't, I wouldn't have expected to make,'' she said. ''I made two great saves on 17 and 18. Kind of got away with some not-so-solid golf shots in the beginning, and I capitalized on some great putts.''

Thompson returned from a two-week break after finishing tied for 20th at the ANA Inspiration, the year's first major.

She bogeyed her second hole, the par-4, 401-yard 11th, before settling down and birdieing four of the next eight holes, including the 14th, 15th and 16th.

''I changed a little thing that slipped my mind that I was working on earlier in the year,'' said Thompson, declining to share the change in her putting technique. ''I don't want to jinx it.''

ANA winner Pernilla Lundberg was among those in the logjam after a 68.

Natalie Gulbis was among five players tied for 10th at 69. Playing sparingly the last two years, Gulbis put together a round that included four birdies and two bogeys.

Top-ranked Shanshan Feng struggled to a 74 with five bogeys and two birdies.

The venerable course with views of the Hollywood sign and Griffith Observatory wasn't any kinder to eighth-ranked Cristie Kerr and Michelle Wie.

Both had up-and-down rounds that included three bogeys and a double-bogey on No. 10 for Kerr and five bogeys, including three in a row, for Wie. Wie, ranked 14th, had a few putts that lipped out.

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Horschel (68) builds on momentum at Valero

By Will GrayApril 20, 2018, 12:32 am

Billy Horschel only ever needs to see a faint glimmer of light at the end of the tunnel.

While some players require a slow ascent from missed cuts to contending on the weekend, Horschel's switches between the two can often be drastic. Last year he missed three straight cuts before defeating Jason Day in a playoff to win the AT&T Byron Nelson, a turnaround that Horschel said "still shocks me to this day."

The veteran is at it again, having missed five of six cuts prior to last week's RBC Heritage. But a few tweaks quickly produced results, as Horschel tied for fifth at Harbour Town. He wasted no time in building on that momentum with a bogey-free, 4-under 68 to open the Valero Texas Open that left him one shot behind Grayson Murray.

"I'm a big momentum player. I've got to get the train moving forward," Horschel told reporters Thursday. "I've always been a guy who gets on a little roll, get that train moving and jump into the winner's circle. So yeah, it would have been great to win last week, but it was just nice to play four really good rounds of golf."

Full-field scores from the Valero Texas Open

Valero Texas Open: Articles, photos and videos

Many big names tend to skip this week's stop at TPC San Antonio, but Horschel has managed to thrive on the difficult layout in recent years. He finished third in both 2013 and 2015, and tied for fourth in 2016.

With a return next week to the Zurich Classic of New Orleans where he notched his first career win in 2013 and a title defense in Dallas on the horizon, Horschel believes he's turning things around at just the right time.

"Gets the momentum going, carry it into this week, next week, which I've had a lot of success at," Horschel said. "Really the rest of the year, from here on in I have a lot of really good events I've played well in."

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Three years later, PXG launches new iron

By Golf Channel DigitalApril 19, 2018, 11:22 pm

Three years is a long time between launches of club lines, but Bob Parsons, founder and CEO of PXG, says his company had a very good reason for waiting that long to introduce its second-generation irons.

“Three years ago, when we introduced our first generation 0311 iron, we made a commitment that we would not release a product unless it was significantly better than our existing product,” Parsons said. “:Our GEN2 irons are better than our GEN1 irons in every respect. We believe it’s the best iron ever made, and the second-best iron ever made is our GEN1 iron.”

PXG’s 0311 GEN2 irons, which officially went on sale today, feature what the company says is the world’s thinnest clubface. They have a forged 8620 soft carbon steel body and PXG’s signature weighting technology. The hollow clubheads are filled with a new polymer material that PXG says not only dampens vibration, but also produces higher ball speeds and thus more distance.

The irons come in four “collections” – Tour Performance, Players, Xtreme Forgiveness and Super Game Improvement.

Cost is $400 per iron, or $500 for PXG’s “Extreme Dark” finish. Price includes custom fitting. For more information, visit www.pxg.com.