Keoke Cotner posted his second consecutive 65 to finish alone in second place at 10-under-par 130. Kelly Sellers was two shots further back at 8-under-par 132.
After weather problems early on Thursday pushed the completion of the first round into Friday morning, Langham got back to business at Hardscrabble Country Club and nearly matched a Nationwide Tour record.
Starting at the par-5 third, Langham picked up the first of eight consecutive birdies to make his charge up the leaderboard.
'It was just one of those days, when it gets going good the ball seems to find the hole,' said Langham, who fired a 28 on the front nine. 'There are a lot more days when they lip out.'
A par at the 11th left Langham one birdie short of Omar Uresti's 1994 record of nine straight birdies, but Langham kept his sights on another magical number with a birdie at the par-4 14th.
Langham was now 9 under on his round with an excellent shot of breaking 60. The 35-year-old parred the last four holes, however, but walked away with the best round of his career.
'It crossed my mind once but it's a par-70 course,' Langham said of the possibility of shooting 59. 'It would have been nice to break that barrier.'
Cotner played the back side first and faltered out of the gate with a bogey at the 10th. He countered with an eagle at the par-5 11th and tallied back-to-back birdies from the par-4 13th to reach minus-8 for the tournament.
He dropped a shot with a bogey at the 17th but came right back to birdie the very next hole.
Cotner added a pair of birdies on the front nine to finish two shots off the lead.
Rafael Gomez stands alone in fourth place at 7-under-par 133 while Justin Bolli followed at 6-under-par 134.
First-round leader Jim Carter struggled to a round of 73 to join Bryce Molder, Charley Hoffman, Mike Sullivan, Jason Caron, Chris Anderson, Jeff Hart and Ryuji Imada at 5-under-par 135.